– CBNRM Forum Analysis Report on Draft Rebulican Constitutional Provisions on Part XIX

Chinsali Community Constitution Engagement. The Forum arranged for district and provincial community engagement workshops on the provisions of Part XIX of the draft constitution to sensitize and advocate for community submissions for the analysis report in order to involve rural communities in the constitution making process.

 

CBNRM  FORUM  ANALYSIS  REPORT  ON  DRAFT  REPUBLICAN  CONSTITUTIONAL  PROVISIONS  ON  PART XIX ON LAND, PROPERTY, ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES
1.0    INTRODUCTION
   To  give  guidance  for  a  clear  understanding  of  the  provisions  of  the  draft  Republican  Constitution  on  Environment and Natural Resources Management
   To facilitate a review and analysis of the draft  Republican Constitution provisions  in line with emerging
issues in Environment and Natural resources management example climate change, genetically modified
organisms, REDD+, CBNRM, Bio-fuels, land tenure, benefit sharing, polluter pays principle
   To facilitate the identification of gaps and barriers that might hinder sound conservation, environment and
natural resource management
   To  provide  a  Draft  Republican  Constitution  analysis  report  and  facilitate  the  development  of  a  position
paper that will be shared with the CBNRM Forum Stakeholders for validation and later submission to the
Technical Committee drafting the Republican Constitution
2.0    CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS
A constitution is a document that basically provides a framework, statement of ideals and guiding principles. It is
the basis for the organisation of any State. The State is the mechanism through which a society provides for the
exercise of political, administrative and judicial powers in order to ensure law and order, protection of rights of
people, promotion and regulation of the economy.  From a legal dimension, it is not only a law, but a supreme
law.    This  means  that  no  law  or  policy  that  is  inconsistent  with  the  Constitution  is  valid.    The  Constitution
protects individual rights, that is, civil and political rights such as (right to life, human dignity, protection from
inhuman  treatment,  freedom  of  association,  freedom  of  movement,  freedom  of  person,  security  of  person, 2

protection of privacy of person, home, property and communication, freedom of religion and conscience, access
to information, political rights, right to assemble, demonstrate, picket, lock out and petition, equality before law,
fair  administration,  equality  before  the  law,  fair  trial,  equality  of  both  gender,  family,  children,  protection  of
young  persons,  persons  with  disabilities,  acquisition  and  protection  of  property  )  and  economic,  social  and
cultural  rights  (economic  and  social  rights,  language  and  culture,  freedom  to  choose  trade,  occupation  and
profession, labour relations, consumer rights, environment).
The draft Republican Constitution has to some extent taken into consideration some international principles in
relation to the  environment and natural  resources  management. The starting point is  in the Preamble to the
Draft Republican Constitution which includes the principle of sustainable development.  Sustainable development
is the general principle that human development and use of natural resources must take place in a sustainable
manner.   The Preamble also recognises and upholds the multi-ethnic and multi-cultural character of our nation
and the self actualization of people living in different Provinces of Zambia and their right to manage their own
local affairs and resources in a devolved system of governance within a unitary State.  Article 9 provides for the
national  values  and  principles  and  the  basis  of  State  policy  that  includes  the  principle  of  sustainable
development.
This is an important inclusion as its successful application would require not merely the legal, but also economic
and policy instruments in order to bring  about sustainable development.  Any human activity deemed useful,
but  which  affects  the  environment  in  which  we  live  in  a  detrimental  manner,  may  be  required  to  fulfil  the
criterion  of  sustainability  in  the  sense  that  the  activity  may  not  be  allowed  to  reduce  the  capacity  of  the
environment  to  ensure  its  continued  usefulness  for  that  and  other  human  activities.    The  Draft  Republican
Constitution creates a sound basis for subsequent review of sectoral pieces of legislation with competence over
natural resources to ascribe to these principles and obligations imposed on the State under Article 63 (4) and
(5). 3

2.1    PART V – BILL OF RIGHTS
The provisions of the Draft Republican Constitution affirm environmental rights in Part V under the Bill of Rights.
It introduces the  right to a healthy, clean  and living environment, and classifies it as a fundamental or basic
right under Article 67. This right is further enforceable as a basic right through Article 26 which states that
when  applying  or  interpreting  the  rights,  the  Constitutional  Court  shall,  if  necessary,  develop  human  rights
jurisprudence  where  legislation  does  not  give  effect  to  a  right  or  freedom  as  contemplated  under  the  Bill  of
Rights.    When  applying  the  Bill  of  Rights,  the  Constitutional  Court,  a  Court,  tribunal,  the  Human  Rights
Commission,  any  person  or  body  shall  interpret  a  right  or  freedom  in  a  manner  consistent  with  the  spirit,
objectives, limitations and derogations permitted  under the Bill of Rights.   This forms a concrete basis of an
environmental right as it extends beyond procedural matters and becomes a legally enforceable environmental
right.
The following clauses under Part V of the Bill of Rights have a bearing on environmental rights, namely –
Article 22 – Responsibilities of citizens
Article 22 (1)(c ) and (d) places a responsibility on a citizen to protect and conserve the environment and
utilize  natural  resources  in  a  sustainable  manner  and  maintain  a  clean  and  healthy  living  environment
respectively.  This  can  be  said  to  be  linked  to  Article  37  on  access  to  information  which  forms  a  primary
element of environmental conservation, protection and management. Article 22 firmly defines responsibilities
for people to protect, conserve and manage the environment and natural resources as envisaged under Article
303  of  the  draft  Constitution.    In  order  to  realise  this  fundamental  right,  the  Government  is  required  under
Articles  301 (on land) and Article 305 (legislation relating to environment and  natural resources) to enact
legislation with regard to the environment and natural resources. The Draft Constitution has made a deliberate
effort at incorporating sustainable utilisation and sustainable management and use of natural resources, and this
is commendable. 4

Article 25 – Duty of the State to promote rights and freedoms
Article 25 – the State has a duty to respect, protect, promote and fulfill the Bill of rights. It shall also recognise
the role that civil society plays in the promotion and protection of the Bill of Rights.  This provision is important
and necessary for advocacy.
Article 26 – Application and interpretation of Bill of Rights
Article  26  –  Application  and  interpretation  of  the  Bill  of  rights  by  the  Constitutional  Court,  Human  Rights
Commission, a Court, and Tribunal in a manner consistent with the spirit and objectives, limitations, derogations
permitted in the Bill of Rights.   Access to tribunals in order to challenge environmental decisions is important in
realizing  fundamental  rights  on  the  environment  and  natural  resources.  This  will  further  development
jurisprudence in environmental law.
Article 28 – Right to life
Article 28 – The right to life advances environmental protection through provisions  in Clause 62 on economic
and social rights such as the right to clean and safe water in adequate quantities and to reasonable standards,
highest  standard  of  health,  and  access  to  adequate  food  of  acceptable  standards.  This  Article  guarantees
fundamental human rights to life and human dignity (Article 29 ) and it can be argued to be linked to the need
for a healthy and clean environment to give effect to these rights.
Article 29 –Human Dignity
Article 29 – A person has inherent dignity and the right to have that dignity respected and protected. It can
also be argued that the right to life incorporates the right to human dignity. The two rights are entwined as the
right to life is more than existence. It is also a right to be treated as a human being with dignity. 5

Article 37 – Access to information
Article 37 – Access to information held by the State and information that is held by another person which is
lawfully  required  for  the  exercise  or  protection  of  any  right  or  freedom.  To  be  effective  participants,  citizens
must be well informed and have access to accurate and reliable information as well as opportunities to present
their  views  and  to  question  and  challenge  decisions  which  have  adverse  environmental  impacts.  In  order  to
exercise this responsibility, citizens must therefore be granted certain rights, including access to information, the
right to participate in environmental decision making and access to tribunals in order to challenge environmental
decisions.
Article 44 – Acquisition and protection of property
Article 44 – A person has the right either to individually or in association with others, to acquire any property
of any description and in any part of Zambia.  This is an important fundamental right and from an environmental
right  perspective,  this  Article  touches  on  protection  of  genetic  resources  and  traditional  or  indigenous
knowledge.  This should be read with Article 63 on language and culture and Article 67 on the environment.
Article 303 provides for the utilisation of natural resources and management of the environment. It inter alia
states that the State will protect genetic resources and biological diversity, protect and enhance the intellectual
property  in,  and  indigenous  knowledge  of,  biodiversity  and  genetic  resources  of  the  local  communities.    It
should be augmented further by the need to utilize the environment and natural resources for the benefit of the
people of Zambia.
Article 47 – Access to justice
Article 47 – A person has the access and right to justice. A person has the right to have any dispute resolved
and decided timely and to have a fair hearing before a court or, where appropriate, any other independent and 6

impartial  tribunal.    This  is  an  important  fundamental  right  in  so  far  as  environmental  decision-making  is
concerned.
Article 62 –Economic and social rights
Article 62 – A person has the right to the highest attainable standard of health, which includes the right to
health care services and reproductive health, accessible and adequate housing, be free from hunger and to have
access to adequate food of acceptable quality, clean and safe water in adequate quantities and to reasonable
standards of sanitation. Water is a fundamental right and every person should have a right of access to basic
water supply and sanitation. It is imperative upon the State to ensure that the country’s resources permit, and
aim  to  provide  all  Zambians  access  to  clean  water  and  reasonable  standards  of  sanitation.  This  has  been
recognised in the draft Republican Constitution and issues of access, use, proprietary rights are best dealt with
in an Act of parliament such as the Water Resources Management Act and other relevant legislation.
Article 63 – Right to language and culture
Article 63 provides for language and culture. Specifically,  Article 63(4)(b) and (c ) obligates the State to
recognise  the  role  of  technology  and  indigenous  technology  in  the  development  of  the  Nation,  and  support,
promote  and  protect  the  intellectual  property  rights  of  the  owner,  or  the  people  of  Zambia.    Article  63(5)
states that Parliament shall enact legislation to ensure that communities  receive compensation or royalties for
the  use  of  their  biological    knowledge,  medicinal  plants  and  cultural  heritage,  recognise  and  protect  the
ownership  of indigenous seeds and plant varieties their genetic and diverse characteristics.  This protection of
genetic resources and traditional knowledge is a subject matter of the constitutional provisions on protection of
right to property, culture and environment.  Genetic resources and abiotic resources have many benefits, and
well managed biodiversity is an important tool or vehicle towards achieving food security and improvement in
human and public health (medicinal aspects of traditional and conventional medicines) and every effort should
be made to sustainably use and conserve them. This can be further amplified in an Act of Parliament that will 7

detail issues of biotechnology, issues of commercialization of genetic resources and communities benefit from
such activities. Article 304 is instructive on this point. The realisation of these principles under Article 63 will
require significant legal reform and judicial enforcement.
Article 67 – Right to environment
Article 67 provides that a person has the right to a clean and healthy living environment.   This provision will
fortify and enhance environmental management.  It is also actionable and enforceable as a basic right through
Article 47 where a person has the access and right to justice and can go to court for an interpretation of the Bill
of rights and any freedoms. The Environmental Management Act also makes provisions for a person to bring a
matter  into  court  for  any  environmental  wrong  bringing  the  common  law  principle  of  locus  standi  (legal
standing). The Draft Republican Constitution now embodies this principle.
Article 72 –Enforcement of Bill of Rights
Article 72 (1) provides that where a person alleges that any provisions of the Bill of Rights has been, is being
or is likely to be contravened in relation to the person, that person may apply for redress to the Constitutional
Court.  Parliament shall enact legislation to give effect to this part and for the enforcement of the Bill of Rights.
It  can  be  deduced  that  the  intention  of  this  provision  in  the  draft  Republican  Constitution  is  to  implement
measures that will also promote and uphold rights relating to environmental and natural resources management.
Article 303  –Protection of environment and natural resources Article 304 – Utilisation of natural
resources and management of environment
Articles 303 makes provision for the protection of environment and natural resources.  Article 304 provides
for  the  utilisation  of  natural  resources  and  management  of  the  environment.      It  sets  out  obligations  on  the
Government relating to environmental and natural resource management. It compels the Government to ensure 8

sustainable utilisation, exploitation, management, protection and conservation of the environment and natural
resources, and to ensure the equitable sharing of accruing benefits.   This obligation combines the human need
to utilize resources in a sustainable manner, with the duty to sustainably manage and conserve those resources.
There is also a duty on every person to co-operate with the State, State institutions and other people to protect
and  conserve  the  environment.    The  inference  to  draw  from  these  provisions  is  to  ensure  ecologically
sustainable development.
As  the  law  is  dynamic  and  evolving,  the  numerous  emerging  issues  in  environment  and  natural  resources
management are best dealt with under an Act of Parliament. These include issues on land use, forests, climate
change etc.
3.0     ANALYSIS AND COMMENTARY ON PART XIX OF THE DRAFT CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS
The draft Republican Constitution introduces Part XIX on land, property, environment and natural resources.  As
per Terms of Reference, below is an analysis of Part XIX of the Draft Republican Constitution following three (3)
Consultative and brainstorming sessions with the Zambia CBNRM.  This Analysis Report now serves as an input
towards  the  development  of  a  position  paper  that  will  be  shared  with  the  CBNRM  Forum  stakeholders  for
validation.
NOTE: For ease of reference, please note that the underlined part in the text denotes the inclusion
of new phrases or sentences in the respective Articles.

ARTICLE  AND
SUBTITLE
RELEVANT TEXT  CONCERN/RATIONALE   SUBMISSION/PROPOSAL

Article 63 (5)(b)  Parliament   shall   enact   The protection of genetic  It  is  proposed  that  Article 9

Language and culture    legislation       to       (b)
recognise and protect the
ownership  of  indigenous
seeds  and  plant  varieties
their  genetic  and  diverse
characteristics.

resources and indigenous
knowledge  is  a  subject
matter    of    the    Draft
Republican    Constitution
and    touches    on    the
Articles      relating      to
protection  of  the  right  to
property,    culture    and
environment.  The Article
is  devoid  of  any  mention
on    fauna  and  this  is  an
omission.
The      Article      should
specifically  emphasis  and
include a provision on the
need        to        protect
traditional       knowledge
holders     against     any
infringement     of     their
rights,  as  well  as  their
protection against misuse
and unlawful exploitation.
Traditional      knowledge
holders    should   benefit
from  their  contribution  in
the       generation       of
intellectual        property.
Important  issues  such  as
63(5)(b)   be   amended   as
follows –

(b)  recognise  and  protect
the          ownership          of
indigenous  abiotic
resource,  seeds  and  plant
varieties  their  genetic  and
diverse characteristics, and
indigenous fauna.

It  is  proposed  that  Article
63(5)     be     amended     to
include the following –

(c    )    protect    traditional
knowledge     against     any
proprietary infringement of
their  rights  as  well  as  the
protection   of   expressions
of         folklore         against
misappropriation,     misuse
and unlawful exploitation. 10

how  to  deal  with  cross
species        modification,
manipulation,
contamination   shall   be
addressed  in  an  Act  of
Parliament.

Article 67
Environment
A person has a right to a
clean  and  healthy  living
environment
It  is  not  clear  what  a
living environment entails
in  this  context.  It  could
mean  the  anthropogenic
environment        (human
access          to          and
sustainability  of  drinking
water, breathable air, and
safe   soil)   OR   it   could
mean  biocentric  ensuring
biodiversity          species
protection  and
conservation.
From the way this right is
framed,  it  is  indicative  of
an  anthropogenic
approach or choice to the
environment  as  it  would
appear  to  be    concerned
with      the      increasing
A definition of environment
is proposed as follows –

“environment’   means   the
natural      or      man-made
surroundings  at  any  place,
comprising air, water, land,
natural  resource,  animals,
buildings        and        other
constructions     and     such
processes     that     support
natural  resource
management;”
11

deterioration  of
environmental quality and
integrity.        This        is
commendable.

Secondly,    there    is    a
generality  in  the  use  of
words  such  as  “healthy”,
and it must be recognised
that there is no universal
definition  for  a  healthy
environment.    The  word
“environment”  has  been
defined  in  this  clause  as
is  in  the  Environmental
Management     Act     of
Zambia

Article 293 (1)
Principles      of     land
policy
Land  in  Zambia  shall  be
held  and  managed  in  a
manner that is equitable,
efficient,  productive  and
sustainable,      and      in
accordance     with     the
following principles –
Provisions do not address
the land use and the use
of  land  according  to  its
best  possible  use  in  line
with  preserving
environmental     integrity
and     sustainable     use.
The   importance   of   a
consultative  and
participatory      approach
There is need to insert new
sub-clauses  in  Article  293
(1) as follows –

(h)  land  use  planning  shall
be  done  in  a  consultative
and participatory  manner;
(i)  sustainable  use  of  land
according     to     its     best
possible    use    so    as    to 12

should  be  recognised  in
land use planning.
In     principle,     it     is
important       to       also
recognise  usufruct  rights
in  land  use.    Usufruct
rights    are    rights    to
enjoyment    enabling    a
holder  to  derive  profit  or
benefit    from    property
that  belongs  to  another
person.      These   rights
become  relevant  in  the
context    of    the    use,
development  and
management   of   natural
resources.  The detail and
processes  can  be  fulfilled
and realised under an Act
of Parliament

preserve        environmental
integrity;
(j)  recognition  of  usufruct
principles and rights

Article 293 (1)(f)
Principles      of     land
policy
Land  in  Zambia  shall  be
held  and  managed  in  a
manner that is equitable,
efficient,  productive  and
sustainable,      and      in
accordance     with     the
following principles –
This  provision  does  not
take   into   account   the
livelihood         of         a
community.
It  is  proposed  that  Article
293  (1)(f)  be  amended  as
follows –

(f)  river  frontages,  islands
and  lakeshores  maintained 13

(f)      river      frontages,
islands   and   lakeshores
maintained  and  used  for
conservation,
preservation     activities,
public      access      and
enjoyment,     and     not
leased, fenced or sold;

and  used  for  conservation,
preservation         activities,
public        access,        local
communities      livelihoods,
social  and  cultural  spiritual
practices   and   enjoyment,
and  not  leased,  fenced  or
sold;
Article 293 (1)(g)
Principles      of     land
policy
(1) Land    in    Zambia
shall  be  held  and
managed     in     a
manner    that    is
equitable,  efficient,
productive       and
sustainable,  and  in
accordance     with
the          following
principles    –    (g)
investment  in  land
to also benefit local
communities    and
their economy

The   use   of   the   word
“also”  waters  down  the
intent of the provision. It
is proposed that the word
should   be   replaced   by
“shall”.
It  is  not  clear  what  type
of investment and type of
land is envisaged.
The  investment  in  land
should  not  only  benefit
local   communities   and
their     economies,     but
should   go   further   and
benefit  their  social  and
economic development.
It  is  proposed  that  Article
293  (1)(g)  be  amended  as
follows –

(g) investment in land shall
benefit   local   communities
and  their  local  livelihoods,
social       and       economic
development;

Article 294 (1)   (1) Land  in  Zambia  is   A  new  concept  of  land  It  is  proposed  that  Article 14

Vesting    of    land    in
Zambia
vested     in     the
President   and   is
held      by      the
President  in  trust
for,  and  on  behalf
of,  the  people  of
Zambia
ownership  is  required  in
Zambia so that it is made
clear  that  the  President
merely   holds   land   on
behalf  of  the  people  of
Zambia.
294  (1)  be  re-worded  as
follows –

(1)    All       land       in
Zambia  belongs  to
the      people      of
Zambia  collectively
as    a    nation,    as
communities     and
as individuals.

Article 294 (3)
Vesting    of    land    in
Zambia
The     President     may,
through      the      Lands
Commission,   chiefs   or
local  authorities,  alienate
land  to  citizens  or  non-
citizens,  provided by this
Constitution  and  by  or
under     an     Act     of
Parliament
Land  should  categorically
belong    to    citizens    of
Zambia.  That  is  through
the   people   of   Zambia,
followed       by       local
communities,    traditional
authorities,  Lands
Commission and then the
President.      This   is   to
remove  any  abuses  that
may      arise      in      its
alienation.
Secondly,    non    citizens
should  not  be  accorded
the    same    rights    as
citizens  in  the  tenure  of
The   provisions   in   Clause
332    in    the    Mung’omba
Constitution      with      the
necessary           re-wording
should     be     inserted     in
Clause 294  as follows –

(4)  Subject  to  clause  (1),
State land may be held on a
lease  of  99  years  or  such
lesser   years   as   may   be
provided  by  legislation  for
different      categories      of
state land.

(5)  A  person  who  is  not  a 15

land. If any land is to be
alienated  to  non-citizens,
it  should  be  by  way  of  a
sub-lease    through    its
citizens  and  not  directly
from  the  State.  Any  use
of  land  by  non-citizens
should  be  in  partnership
with    citizens    so    that
citizens  participate  in  the
use     of     the     natural
resource.  It  is  proposed
that      restrictions      be
applicable on non citizens
holding  land  as  is  the
case in other jurisdictions
taking  cognizance  of  the
need        to        balance
development  and
investment  needs  which
should   not   override   or
undermine citizen’s rights
under the Constitution.

The NCC in  its provisions
under  Article  295  (3)-(5)
provided      for      equity
participation  of
citizen  shall  not  own  land
in Zambia and shall only be
entitled  to  lease  land  from
a citizen  as provided by an
Act of Parliament.

(6)  Parliament  shall  enact
legislation   to   provide   for
the    categories    of    non-
citizens        and        locally
incorporated  foreign
companies       that       may
sublease      land   and   the
conditions     under     which
they may do so

It  is  proposed that  Article
295 of the NCC be inserted
in   Article   294      of   the
current draft as follows –

(4)  Rights  of  ownership  in,
searching  for,  mining  and
disposing  of,  minerals  and
petroleum        wheresoever
located   in   Zambia   shall
belong   to   the   people   of 16

individuals  or  landowners
in  the  mineral  resources
and   petroleum.      This
provision  be  restated  so
as   to   ensure   that   the
people  of  Zambia  benefit
from  its  natural  resource
as     currently     mineral
resources     have     been
exploited to the detriment
of  persons  holding  land
which  is  the  subject  of  a
mining right.
Zambia.

(5)         A  person
holding  land  which  is
the     subject     of     a
mining     right     shall
have       an       equity
participation    in    the
mining  which  is  the
subject of the right in
addition  to
compensation.      The
rights        of        local
communities  living  in
an  area  subject  to  a
mining  right  and  who
may   be   affected   by
any  mining  processes
shall be recognised.

(6)         Minerals,
mineral     ores      and
petroleum    shall    be
exploited  taking  into
account  the  integrity
of   the   environment,
interest        of        the
individual 17

landowners,         local
communities  and  the
Government,         and
issues    of    equitable
sharing   of   royalties
arising,    indemnities,
and    restoration    of
derelict land.

Article  295
Classification of land
“All   land   in   Zambia
shall  be  classified  as
State  land,  customary
land,  and  such  other
classification  as  may
be    provided    by    or
under     an     Act     of
Parliament,  and  shall
be      delimitated      in
accordance   with   an
Act of Parliament”
Are classifications such as
reserve  land  envisaged?
There  is  need  to  put  in
place     safeguards     to
ensure  that  the  process
of  classification  of  land
does   not   in   any   way
disadvantage  the  people
of  Zambia.    Therefore,  it
is proposed that there be
only two classifications of
land,  namely  State  land
and customary land so as
to ensure that the people
of     Zambia     are     not
disadvantaged in any way
in relation to land and its
It  is  proposed  that  Article
295 be amended to include
the following –

295.  (1)  All  land  in  Zambia
shall  be          classified  as
State   land   or   customary
land,          and     shall     be
delimitated   in   accordance
with  an  Act  of  Parliament
and    it    shall    take    into
account   the   principles   of
land   policy   under   Article
293.

(2)      A   classification   or
conversion of land shall not 18

use.  disadvantage the people of
Zambia      or      any     local
communities.

Article 296 (d)
State land
State  land  is  –  (d)  land
on    or    under    which
minerals, gas and mineral
oils are found
It    is    imperative    and
desirable    that    for    a
people  driven
constitution,  should  vest
ownership  of  the  natural
resource in its citizens as
a natural resource is part
of a common heritage for
its   citizens.      Therefore
adequate        safeguards
should   be   put   in   the
constitution  on  use  and
ownership   issues   of   a
natural resource.
The      position      above
represents  a  major  legal
shift     from     what     is
currently          pertaining
through  the  Mines  and
Minerals      Development
Act, Lands Act.
The current law does not
adequately  deal  with  the
Therefore   it   is   proposed
that   Article   296   (d)   be
deleted  and  its  provisions
amplified and elaborated in
Article 294 as stated above

19

equitable  transfer  of  this
natural  resource  in  that
mineral    resources    are
vested    in    the    State
despite  use  of  the  land
through a lease.
There    should    be    a
fundamental     shift     in
principle  in  that  once  a
person  has  user  rights  in
the land everything below
would also belong to that
person.

It   is   proposed   that   a
person  should  have  an
equity    stake    in    the
natural  resources  found
on a person’s land, and if
it  is  declared  a  public
good  or  interest,  there
should  be  an  equitable
manner  of  alienating  the
resource  through  equity
participation  and
compensation or payment
of  some  form  of  royalty
to such a person. 20

Issues      of      equitable
sharing      of      royalties
arising   from   mining   or
exploration        activities,
indemnities,    restoration
of derelict land, minerals,
mineral       ores       and
petroleum      shall      be
exploited     taking     into
account  the  interest  of
individual      landowners,
local   communities   and
the Government.

Article 296 (1)
State land
“State  land  is  –  (f)  land
occupied  by,  or  through
which,      any      natural
resource passes including
gazetted or
declared  national
forests,  game  reserves,
river  basins  and  water
catchment  areas,  rivers
and other natural flowing
water  resources,  national
parks,  animal
There  are  private  animal
sanctuaries,  game
reserves.   These   should
not   be   considered   as
state  land  as  they  may
fall     under     customary
land.
The    intention    of    this
provision   is   to   protect
fragile  eco-systems  such
as  river  frontages,  river
sources.  The  details  of
It  is  proposed  that  Article
296(1)(f)  be  redrafted  as
follows –

(f)  land    occupied  by,  or
through which, any natural
resource that is required to
be     protected     due     its
ecological fragile nature; 21

sanctuaries,  natural  and
cultural heritage sites and
specially protected areas

determination    of    such
fragile  eco  systems  etc
and     other     processes
including  the  role  local
communities      in      the
management   of   natural
resources       can       be
addressed  under  an  Act
of Parliament.

Article 296 (1)
State land
State  Land  is  (g)  land
that  is  designated  as  a
multi   facility   economic
zone
Is this a category of land
or a type of land use. It is
superfluous and does not
need       to       be       in
Constitution.
It   is   proposed   that   this
sub-clause be deleted.

Article 300
Functions      of      land
Commission
The   functions   of   the
Lands  Commission  shall
include  the  following  –
(a)  administer,  manage
and   alienate   land   on
behalf of the President
It  should  be  made  clear
that  all  land  belongs  to
the people of Zambia and
that  the  President  is  a
mere  custodian  and  that
the   Lands   Commission
exercises  the  powers  to
administer   and   manage
State      land      through
delegated  authority  from
the President.
Secondly     the     Lands
It   is   proposed   that   the
Article   be   re-drafted   as
follows –
(a)         exercise
through       delegated
authority    from    the
President  the
administration,
management         and
alienation    of    state
land   in   Zambia   on
behalf  of  the  people 22

Commission  should  also
deal  with  customary  law
for        purposes        of
developing selected areas
of    Zambia    found    in
customary   land.      This
provision  was
recommended     in     the
Mung’omba   Constitution
under Article 337 (c).
of Zambia

Further, it is proposed
that     a     new     sub-
clauses    be  inserted
as follows –

(d)  advise
Government and local
authorities on a policy
framework    for    the
development  of
selected     areas     of
Zambia and to ensure
that  the  development
of  customary  land  is
in    accordance    with
the development  plan
for the area.
(e)      consult      with
chiefdoms     on     the
alienation  and
development  of
customary land;

ENVIRONMENT     AND
NATURAL RESOURCES

23

Article 302 (1)
Principles  of
environmental       and
natural          resources
management          and
development
“The   management   and
development  of  Zambia’s
environment  and  natural
resources,      shall      be
governed       by       the
following principles – (c )
the  party  responsible  for
polluting   or   degrading
the      environment      is
responsible for paying for
the  damage  done  to  the
environment
It  is  important  that  the
environment  and  natural
resources  are  protected
and  conserved  and  this
should  be  emphasized  in
the  opening  clause.    The
use     of     the     words
“management’           and
“development”  may  not
necessarily     incorporate
protection  and
conservation     from     a
natural  resource  point  of
view      unless      clearly
stated.

Polluter-pays-principle   is
applied but does not give
clean   up   or   remedial
measures   arising   from
the  pollution.    It  should
also  promote  the  use  of
clean  “green”  technology
in line with the principles
of   using   best   available
technology  or  techniques
(BAT).
It  is  proposed  that  Article
302    be    amended        as
follows –

302  (1)  The  management,
protection,       conservation
and        development        of
Zambia’s  environment  and
natural  resources,  shall  be
governed  by  the  following
principles – …….

It  is  proposed  that  Article
302   (1)   be   amended   as
follows –
(c)   the   party   responsible
for  polluting  or  degrading
the  environment  shall  use
the         best         available
techniques  in  its  processes
and  activities,  and  shall  be
responsible  for  paying  for
the  damage  done  to  the
environment   and   natural
resource     and     shall    be
required  to    clean  up  the
damage   and   restore   the 24

area     in     question     and
compensate   the   affected
parties;

Article 302 (1)(d)
Principles  of
environmental       and
natural          resources
management          and
development
(d)  the  conservation  and
protection  of  ecologically
sensitive  areas  shall  be
conducted   in   a   sound
manner;

The  restoration  of  those
ecologically        sensitive
areas is important and in
line  with  the  principle  of
sustainable  development.
It  is  proposed  that  there
should  be  management,
reclamation  and
development  of
ecologically        sensitive
areas.    The  transfer  of
user   rights   should   be
stated  and  the  principle
recognised  for  enhanced
environmental           and
natural  resource
management  and
development.

It  is  proposed  that  Article
302(1)(d)  be  amended  as
follows –

(d)       the       conservation,
protection,     management,
development  and
reclamation  of  ecologically
sensitive   areas   shall   be
conducted  in  a  sustainable
manner;
(i)  transfer  of  user  rights
shall be recognised;

Article 302 (1)(e)
Principles  of
environmental       and
natural          resources
management          and
(e)    the    integrity    of
natural   processes   and
ecological    communities,
including  conservation  of
habitats and species shall
The   use   of   the   word
“respected”  in  the  text
does   not   carry   much
weight.
It  is  proposed  that  Article
302  (1)(e)  be  amended  as
follows –

(e)      the      integrity      of 25

development  be respected;

ecological   processes   and
ecological  systems,
including   conservation   of
habitats  and  species  shall
be valued;

Article 302 (1)(h)
Principles  of
environmental       and
natural          resources
management          and
development
(1) The management and
development  of  Zambia’s
environment  and  natural
resources,      shall      be
governed       by       the
following principles –

(h)  the  saving  of  energy
and the use of renewable
energy  sources  shall  be
promoted
The  gist  of  this  clause  is
to      promote      energy
efficiency  and  to  move
towards      an      energy
structure   that   is   less
dependant  on  fossil  fuels
and  promotes  renewable
energy    options    which
should  be  sustainable  in
line   with   the   general
principles  of  sustainable
development.   There   is
need  to  include  a  clause
that  adequate  resources
shall be allocated for that
purpose

It  is  proposed  that  Clause
302  (1)(h)  be  amended  as
follows –

(h)         the         use         of
environmental   sustainable
renewable  energy  sources
shall    be    promoted    and
adequate  resources
allocated for that purpose;
Article 302 (1)(i)
Principles  of
environmental       and
natural          resources
(i)   adequate   resources
shall be allocated for the
purposes   of   reclaiming
and  rehabilitating
The  legal  subject  is  not
identified.      A   duty   or
responsibility   should   be
placed  on  a legal subject
It  is  proposed  that  Clause
302  (1)(i)  be  amended  as
follows –
26

management          and
development
degraded     areas     and
those  prone  to  disasters
in  order  to  make  them
habitable and productive
who  shall  be  responsible
for  meeting  the  costs  of
rehabilitating  and
degradation  activities  in
line with the polluter pay
principle.        Further    it
would   be   practical   to
qualify  the  disasters  by
stating “natural disasters”

(i) adequate resources
shall be allocated
for the purposes of
reclaiming and
rehabilitating
degraded areas
and those prone to
natural disasters in
order to make
them habitable and
productive, and
any reclamation
and rehabilitation
costs shall be
borne by the
person whose
activities caused
the damage;
Article 302 (1) (j)
Principles  of
environmental       and
natural          resources
management          and
development
(j)    strategic    research
shall  be  undertaken  in
order    to    ensure    the
enhancement  of  natural
resources
Research  is  key  in  the
development     of     any
nation     and     adequate
resources     should     be
allocated for this purpose
It  is  proposed  that  Article
302  (1)(j)  be  amended  as
follows –

(j)  strategic  research  shall
be  undertaken  in  order  to
ensure the enhancement of 27

natural      resources      and
adequate   resources   shall
be allocated.

Article 302 (1) (k)
Principles  of
environmental       and
natural          resources
management          and
development
(k)  unfair  trade  practices
in          the  production,
processing,    distribution
and  marketing  of  natural
resources      shall      be
eliminated

This  is  a  matter  for  an
Act  of  Parliament.    It  is
proposed   that   the   sub
clause be deleted
Delete

Article 302 (1)(m)
Principles  of
environmental       and
natural          resources
management          and
development
(m)  equitable  access  to
environmental   resources
shall  be  promoted  and
the functional integrity of
ecosystems      and      to
prevent adverse effects
Sustainable  use  is  a  key
element  in  management,
conservation  and
protection  of
environmental   resources
and    this    should    be
reflected in the clause
It  is  proposed  that  Clause
302  (1)(m)  be  amended  as
follows –

(m)  equitable  access  and
sustainable         use         of
environmental  and  natural
resources         shall         be
promoted    to  ensure  the
functional      integrity      of
ecosystems  and  to  prevent
adverse impacts;

Article 302 (1)(n)
Principles  of
environmental       and
(n)  the  people  shall  be
involved  and  participate
in  the  development   of
Any  meaningful
development is one which
is people driven, and this
It  is  proposed  that  Clause
302  (1)(n)  be  amended  as
follows – 28

natural          resources
management          and
development
relevant   policies,   plans
and programmes
clause is seen to espouse
this welcome principle

(n)   the   development   of
relevant  policies,
legislation,      plans      and
programmes       shall       be
inclusive and participatory;

Article 302 (1)(o)
Principles  of
environmental       and
natural          resources
management          and
development
(o) the people shall have
access  to  environmental
information    to    enable
them   preserve,   protect
and       conserve       the
environment

Management     of     the
environment       is      an
important       component
which should be reflected
in the clause.
It  is  proposed  that  Clause
302  (1)(o)  be  amended  as
follows –

(o)  the  people  shall  have
access  to  indigenous  and
scientific       environmental
information to enable them
manage,  preserve,  protect
and          conserve          the
environment   and   natural
resources;
Article 303
Utilisation   of   natural
resources  and
management  of
environment
A  person  has  a  duty  to
co-operate    with    State
organs       and       State
institutions    and    other
persons to –
(a) ensure  ecologically
sustainable
development    and
The        principle        of
reciprocity    should    be
made  clear  in  that  each
legal  subject,  that  is,  a
person,  state  organs  and
state  institutions  should
have          corresponding
duties and responsibilities

It  is  proposed  that  Clause
303 be amended as follows

303.   Every  person  has  a
duty   together   with   State
organs          and          State 29

use     of     natural
resources;
(b) respect,      protect
and  safeguard  the
environment;
(c) prevent  or
discontinue  an  act
which is harmful to
the    environment;
and
(d) maintain  a  clean,
safe   and   healthy
living environment

in   the   management   of
the    environment    and
natural  resources.    This
provision  implies  a  basis
of  public  participation  as
a   primary   element   of
environmental
conservation,   protection
and     management.     It
reinforces  the  duty  on  a
citizen      to      conserve,
protect  and  manage  the
environment  and  natural
resources     as     already
stated  under  Article  22
(1)(c) and (d).

Institutions      and      other
persons to –
(a)         ensure
ecologically
sustainable
development  and  use
of natural resources;
(b)         respect,  protect
and    safeguard    the
environment;
(c)          prevent  or
discontinue    an    act
which  is  harmful   to
the environment; and
(d)         maintain           a
clean,       safe       and
healthy  living
environment; and
(e)         ensure           the
sustainability  of
cultural  and  spiritual
values  as  far  as  they
relate         to         the
environment.

Article 303   (d) maintain a clean, safe   It is not clear what “living  There   is   need   to   define 30

Protection  of
environment           and
natural resources
and      healthy      living
environment

environment” means. Is it
anthropogenic
environment,     that     is
human   access   to   and
sustainability  of  drinking
water,    breathable    air,
safe    soil,    OR    is    it
biocentric           ensuring
biodiversity          species
protection  and
conservation?

environment as follows –

“environment’   means   the
natural      or      man-made
surroundings  at  any  place,
comprising air, water, land,
natural  resource,  animals,
buildings        and        other
constructions”
Article 304 (c )
Utilisation   of   natural
resources  and
management  of
environment
(c)  establish  systems  of
environmental      impact
assessment,
environmental  audit  and
environmental monitoring

Enshrining  the
requirements  of
environmental       impact
assessment,   audit   and
monitoring       of       the
environment  underscores
the       importance       of
integrating environmental
and  development
concerns  and  interests  in
decision-making.       The
detailed  requirements  of
EIAs  are  set  out  in  the
Environmental
Management Act, 2011

It  is  proposed  that  Clause
304   (c)   be   amended   as
follows –

(c)   establish   systems   of
strategic       environmental
assessment,  environmental
impact  assessment,
environmental   evaluation,
accounting,      audit      and
environmental monitoring
31

Evaluation  and
accounting  of
environment  and  natural
resources   is   important.
Strategic    environmental
assessment      is      also
cardinal  and  should  be
included.

Article 304 (d)
Utilisation   of   natural
resources  and
management  of
environment

“A  person  has  a  duty  to
co-operate    with    State
organs       and       State
institutions    and    other
persons to  –
(d)    encourage    public
participation
The      Government      is
obligated   to   encourage
public participation.   This
forms   a   basis   for   the
introduction    of    public
participation  components
in  legislation  or  statutes
relative  to  environmental
management.      This   is
already  contained  in  the
Environmental
Management     Act     of
Zambia.
It  is  worth  noting  that
citizen    participation    is
cardinal  in  environmental
decision-making
particularly     that     the
It  is  proposed  that  Clause
304   (d)   be   amended   as
follows –

(e)         encourage
public participation in
the         management,
development
protection  and
conservation   of   the
environment          and
natural resources;
32

responsibility  of
managing  our
environment  is  on  each
one    of    us    and    not
Government alone. To be
effective       participants,
however, citizens must be
well-informed   and   have
access  to  accurate  and
reliable   information   as
well  as  opportunities  to
present  their  views  and
to question and challenge
decisions    which    have
adverse     environmental
rights.

Article 304 (e)
Utilisation   of   natural
resources  and
management  of
environment

(e)  protect  and  enhance
the  intellectual  property
in,      and      indigenous
knowledge  of,
biodiversity  and  genetic
resources,
The  State’s  promotion  of
all   forms   of   traditional
knowledge  and
recognition  of  intellectual
property   rights   of   the
people  of  Zambia  under
Article  63(4)(c)  is  in  line
with  international
conventions  such  as  the
Convention  on  Biological
It  is  proposed  that  Clause
304   (e)   be   amended   as
follows –

(e)  preserve,  protect  from
biopiracy  and enhance the
intellectual property in, and
indigenous   knowledge   of,
biodiversity    species    and
genetic  resources,  and  to 33

Diversity  (CBD)  and  the
Agreement     on     Trade
Related      Aspects      of
Intellectual         Property
Right     (TRIPS)     which
promotes  the  protection
and     enforcement     of
intellectual         property
rights  in  a  matter  that
benefits   the   producers
and   users   of   genetic
resources.    This  would
also   be   in   line   with
international      principles
envisaged  under
subparagraph  (g)  which
states  that  it  shall  apply
international  best
practices.      The   overall
goal  is  to  enhance  the
preservation  and
protection   of   traditional
knowledge   and   genetic
resources,       and       to
promote their sustainable
use.

promote  their  sustainable
use;
Article 304 (f)  (f)    ensure    that    the   Re-emphasize           that   34

Utilisation   of   natural
resources  and
management  of
environment

environmental  standards
enforced  in  the  Republic
are of essential benefit to
all citizens
environmental   standards
be  developed  and  then
enforced.
(f)      ensure      that      the
environmental      standards
are developed and enforced
in    the    republic    are    of
essential   benefits   to   all
citizens

Article 304 (g)
Utilisation   of   natural
resources  and
management  of
environment

(g)   apply   international
best practices
Include          appropriate
national best practices as
not  all  international  best
practices      could      be
appropriate for Zambia.

It   is   proposed   that   the
following be inserted –

(g)      apply      appropriate
national  and    international
best practices

Article 304
Utilisation   of   natural
resources  and
management  of
environment

The State should promote
all   forms   of   traditional
knowledge  and  recognize
intellectual         property
rights  of  the  people  of
Zambia.    This  is  in  line
with  the  Convention  on
Biological   diversity   and
the  Agreement  on  Trade
Related      Aspects      of
Intellectual         Property
Right     (TRIPS)     which
promotes  the  protection

It  is  proposed  that  a  new
sub-  clause  be  introduced
as follows –

(h)  utilize the environment
and  natural  resources  for
the social, cultural-spiritual
development and benefit of
the people of Zambia”
35

and     enforcement     of
intellectual         property
rights  in  a  matter  that
benefits   the   producers
and   users   of   genetic
resources.    This  would
also   be   in   line   with
international      principles
envisaged  under
subparagraph  (g)  which
states  that  it  shall  apply
international  best
practices.

ENVIRONMENTAL
FUND
Without  the  environment
or    natural    resources,
which  are  our  common
heritage,   society   would
not live.  Importance has
not been attached to the
environment  as  can  be
seen  from  the  brevity  in
the  clauses  under  land,
environment  and  natural
resources.  It  is  not  as
explicit   or   detailed   as
other     parts     of     the
Constitution    despite    a
The proposal is to have the
following  clauses  inserted

There is hereby established
an     Environmental     Fund
which shall  be managed as
prescribed  under  an  Act  of
Parliament.

The  moneys  in  the  Fund
shall    be    used    for    the
development,     protection,
conservation  and 36

constitution     being     a
manifesto  or  a  document
where       a       people’s
aspirations  are  reflected.
In     order     to     attach
importance       to       the
environment,       it       is
proposed       that       an
Environmental   fund   be
established    under    the
Constitution  and  detailed
under  an  enabling  Act  of
Parliament  as  is the case
now         under         the
Environmental
Management Act
Other  details  can  be
left    to    an    Act    of
Parliament.
management   of      natural
resources    in    accordance
with  environmental
principles and conventions.

Parliament   shall   enact   a
law  to  give  effect  to  the
functions,      powers      and
authority           of           the
Environmental Fund.

PART   XXI   GENERAL
PROVISIONS
Article 311
Definitions
It  is  important  to  have  a
clear   understanding   of
what  is  meant  by  the
following  words,  namely
–   environment,   genetic
material,  genetic
resources,  and  biological
It   is   proposed   that   the
following    definitions    be
inserted  in Article 311 –

“biological  diversity”
means       the       variability
among    living    organisms 37

diversity.  Some  concepts
in    environmental    law
maybe        vague        or
uncertain    and    should
therefore    be    defined.
The aim of defining some
of   the   principles   and
terms  used  in  the  text  is
to  provide  interpretative
clarity.    Some    of    the
definitions   are   defined
under  the  Convention  on
Biological   Diversity   and
since    they    are    used
internationally,  these  can
be adopted.

from  all  sources  including,
inter       alia,       terrestrial,
marine  and  other  aquatic
eco-systems     and          the
ecologies     complexes     of
which  they  are  part;  this
includes    diversity    within
species,   between   species
and eco-systems’

“environment’   means   the
natural      or      man-made
surroundings  at  any  place,
comprising air, water, land,
natural  resource,  animals,
buildings        and        other
constructions  and
processes     that     support
natural  resources
management”

“genetic  resources”  means
genetic  material  of  actual
or potential value;

“genetic   material”   means
any    material    of    plant,
animal,  microbial  or  other 38

origin containing functional
units of heredity;

“sustainable    use”    means
the  use  of  components  of
biological diversity in a way
and at a rate that does not
lead     to    the     long-term
decline        of        biological
diversity,  thereby
maintaining its potential to
meet     the     needs     and
aspirations  of  present  and
future generations;

PART  VII  EXECUTIVE
Executive Power

Article 90 (2)(e)
Executive  functions  of
President
(2) Without      limiting
clause  (1)  and  the
other  provisions  of
this    Constitution,
the  President  shall

(e)   establish   and
dissolve
Government
Ministries,   subject
to  the  approval  of
The alignment or creation
of  Government  Ministries
should  not  be  left  to  the
whims  of  the  office  of
President.  Such
alignment    or    creation
may  impact  or  affect  the
management     of     the
environment  and  natural
resources   including   the
implementation  of
It   is   proposed   that   the
provision   be   amended   to
read as follows –

(1) Without   limiting   clause
(1)     and     the     other
provisions       of       this
Constitution,  the
President shall –
(f) establish   and   dissolve
Government    Ministries, 39

the           National
Assembly
environmental           and
natural  resources  plans,
programmes and policies.
It   may   also   lead   to
fragmented  line
ministries.  There  is  need
to   have   a   consultative
and  participatory
mechanism   for   relevant
stakeholders to input into
the alignment or creation
of  Government  Ministries
before  it  is  approved  by
the National Assembly.

subject  to  the  approval
of        the        National
Assembly:
Provided   that   relevant
stakeholders    shall    be
consulted    before    the
matter  is  tabled  before
the national Assembly;

PART  XIII
CHIEFTAINCY       AND
HOUSE OF CHIEFS

Article 211(2)(g)
System       of       local
government
(2) The  local
government
system shall  –
(g) encourage        the
involvement        of
communities    and
community
organisations      in
matters    of    local
government;
Chiefs functions not clear
stated  as  it  also  affects
management  and
conservation      of      the
environment  and  natural
resources
It   is   proposed   that   sub-
clause (g)  be  re-worded  as
follows –

(h)         encourage     the
involvement  of
communities          and
community
organisations  in
matters       of       local
government  including
matters    relating    to
environment          and 40

natural         resources
conservation,
protection,
management,        and
development.

Article 230 (a)
Functions  of  House  of
Chiefs
Notwithstanding     Article
229  (1),  the  House  of
Chiefs may –
(a) consider          and
discuss    any    Bill
referred   to   it   by
the         President,
dealing    with,    or
touching           on,
custom  or
tradition,  before  it
is  introduced  into
the  National
Assembly
Issues   of   environment
and natural resources are
not  stated  as  a  function
of  the  House  of  Chiefs.
This  is  an  omission  as
chiefdoms   should   deal
with  such  issues  through
the traditional structures.
It  is  proposed  that  a  new
sub  clause  be  inserted  as
follows –

(e)   discuss   matters
relating  to
environment          and
natural         resources
conservation,
protection,
management,        and
development.

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